We’ll start by morphology, which works with morphemes (the limited products out of linguistic form and definition), and how they make right up terms and conditions.
We’ll after that speak about phonology, and this deals with phonemes (the brand new meaningless issues you to “show” new sound of morphemes), and phonetics, which knowledge how code is actually embodied on pastime out-of speaking, this new resulting actual tunes, additionally the procedure for message impression..
Up coming we shall evaluate sentence structure, and this works closely with the way in which terminology try joint to the sentences and sentences. In the end, we shall occupy two regions of meaning, namely semantics, which works with just how sentences try pertaining to some thing in the industry beyond code, and you will pragmatics, which works with exactly how individuals use every quantities of language to communicate.
New odd nature off morphology
Off a clinical point of view, morphology is the oddest of your amounts of linguistic research. While i give it lecture in order to an introductory classification, I am constantly reminded out of just what particle physicist Isidor Rabi said as he heard about the finding of your muon: “Exactly who ordered you to definitely?” From the serendipity, so it morning’s Nyc Minutes enjoys a glance at an alternative publication, “Brand new Browse of your own Quark”, you to definitely informs the story:
About fifth century B.C., one prescient Greek philosopher been mankind on the the identify the brand new universe’s best blocks when he recommended that every count try produced from infinitesimally quick particles named atoms. During the 1897, british physicist J. J. Thomson tricky the difficulty when he located the original subatomic particle, brand new electron. Afterwards, other people recognized the newest proton and you may neutron. Because the atom smashers expanded in the next pair ages, myriads off ephemeral particles appeared in this new dirt, a veritable Greek alphabet soups away from lambdas, sigmas and you can pions. ”Who bought that?” exclaimed the theorist Isidor We. Rabi when the muon are known.
Because of the first model of peoples spoken words, the levels out-of phonology, sentence structure, semantics and pragmatics is actually probably unavoidable. It need-not https://datingranking.net/cs/dil-mil-recenze/ research precisely the way that they do, perhaps, however, there needs to be something you should carry out the work regarding each one of these accounts.
Prepositions tell you most of the after the version of relationships except
But morphology is largely gratuitous, in addition to state-of-the-art and unusual: whatever a words does that have morphology, it usually can also do so much more straightforwardly that have syntax; as there are usually various other words one does a similar situation that have syntax.
For-instance, English morphology inflects nouns so you’re able to identify plurality: therefore dogs mode “more than one canine”. That it inflection lets us getting specific, within the a compact method, concerning distinction between one and a lot more-than-that. However, we can always state exactly the same thing inside the a very elaborated method, utilising the sourced elements of sentence structure in lieu of morphology: multiple dog. When we wish to be obscure, we must getting long-winded: one or more animals.
Modern Standard Chinese (also known as “Mandarin” otherwise “Putonghua”) can make precisely the reverse options: there’s no morphological marking to have plurality, so we is going to be succinctly obscure on if we mean you to or more of one thing, as we should be way more much time-winded whenever we want to be specific. Hence (in the Pinyin orthography with tone number after every syllable):
As an example of some other version of morphological packaging, English produces iconify from symbol and you can -ify, definition “generate to your a symbol.” Maybe it’s nice having one term for this, however, we are able to will have told you “create on the an icon.” And many dialects run out of any general means to fix turn a great noun X to your an effective verb meaning “to make with the (an) X”, and thus must make use of the lengthened-winded mode away from expression. In fact, the process inside the English is quite volatile: i say vaporize maybe not *vaporify, and you can emulsify maybe not *emulsionify, etc.